Plenary Session 2
Contact: Roland Triay (CPT) – triay[at]cpt.univ-mrs.fr
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I will show that Noncommutative Geometry provides an appealing framework for the unification of all fundamental interactions including gravity
This talk will be an introduction to deformation quantization based on geometrical considerations. I will show how the notion of -product emerges from a formula for the multiplication of matrices. I will then give a definition of deformation quantization in the context of Poisson manifolds and conclude by general results about this notion. The talk is meant to a general audience.
The theoretical and phenomenological status of neutrino physics is reviewed as well as the cosmological implications for dark matter, inflation and the baryon asymmetry.
The top quark is the only fermion whose mass resides at the electroweak scale. Its role in the SM and in models of new physics together with its rich phenomenology provide a unique opportunity for exploring the TeV scale. In this talk I review the status of top-quark measurements after the Run I of the LHC and the exciting opportunities ahead in light of the possibility for the top quark to be a portal to new physics.
The IceCube project has transformed one cubic kilometer of natural Antarctic ice into a neutrino detector. The instrument detects 100,000 neutrinos per year in the GeV to PeV energy range. Among those, we have recently isolated a flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. I will discuss the instrument, the analysis of the data, and the significance of the discovery of cosmic neutrinos.
Lattice QCD is a method for solving the nonperturbative dynamics of low energy QCD from first principles. Over the last few years, the field has matured considerably and reliable experimental predictions have been obtained in many areas. I will summarise the most important developments, give an overview of the currently attainable precision on key observables such as the hadron spectrum or the light quark masses and discuss some open challenges and future perspectives of the field.
Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules.
Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied and understood among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are probably responsible only for particle acceleration up to PeV energies, and hence for most of the energy that is put into relativistic particles in the Universe, but not for the highest individual particle energies. However they allow us to study in great detail acceleration mechanisms such as shock acceleration (both in the newtonian and relativistic regime) or magnetic reconnection, the same processes that are likely to be operating also in more powerful sources.
I will present a summary of what we learned so far from low-energy flavor observables, concerning on physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). In the past few years there has been a great experimental progress in quark and lepton flavour physics. In the quark sector, the validity of the SM has been strongly reinforced by a series of challenging tests. As I try to show, looking for physics beyond the SM via the Flavour Window is still a powerful tool thanks also to forthcoming results from LHC and future B Factories.
The relativistic ejections of plasmas from black hole environments and pulsars lead to the production of High energy radiations and cosmic rays, possibly ultra high energy cosmic rays up to a few 1020 eV, through a special kind of shocks. A special kind of self-sustaining, nonlinear structure, called collisionless relativistic shock, will be presented, which is considered as explaining the high energy phenomena as the interplay of a front made of an electromagnetic barrier, the generation of a very intense magnetic turbulence and the generation of a population of high energy particles. Numerical simulations, theoretical developments and possible experiments at powerful laser facilities of these relativistic collisionless shocks have stimulated a significant progress in high energy astrophysics nowadays.
 A. Spitkovsky, 2008, ApJ, 673, L39
 I. Plotnikov, G. Pelletier, M. Lemoine, 2013, MNRAS, 430, 1280
 M. Lemoine, G. Pelletier, L. Gremillet, I. Plotnikov, 2014, MNRAS, 440, 1365
Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions allow us to study the densest and hottest forms of matter that can be created in the laboratory, states of matter that have existed in the early universe for only a brief instant, a few microseconds after the big bang.
In this talk, I shall present a short overview of the latest developments in the field, by choosing a few highlights from the results obtained at the LHC. I shall also discuss the evolution of ideas and concepts that have been triggered by these experiments.
Three fundamental problems in the field of UHE astrophysical particles are reviewed.
UHE particles are observed at energies higher than eV, with eV as the highest energy. In principle, in cosmology there are the reliable mechanisms of particle production with energies much higher than eV (e.g. Topological Defects or Super Heavy Dark Matter), but this production most probably cannot explain the observational data. It is widely argued nowadays that traditional acceleration, e.g. acceleration by relativistic shocks, cannot provide the observed highest energies.
The other fundamental problem is propagation of protons and nuclei in extragalactic space. This problem is studied thoroughly theoretically with prediction of spectral features, dip and GZK cutoff, for protons, which are observed in data of HiRes and Telescope Array, but contradict to mass composition measured by of Auger.
The third fundamental problem is cosmogenic neutrinos, produced by interaction of UHE protons and nuclei with background radiation CMB and EBL. Neutrinos detected by IceCube in 2010 - 2012 do not correspond to standard predictions, and detection of cosmogenic neutrinos probably expects the future space detector JEM-EUSO.